In some Arab countries women still have to ask permission from a male relative to get a passport, marry or leave the country. Although the practice of "male guardianship" is not always enshrined in law, it persists in everyday life within many families. 

As part of the 100 Women season, the BBC asked three female cartoonists from North Africa to take up their pens and illustrate how the custom continues to affect women's lives in their countries.

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