Womens Justice Center

The Liberation of Women's Energy
Will Change the World.

La liberación de la energía de la mujer cambiará el mundo

o provide advocacy, free of charge, for victims of rape, domestic violence, and child abuse, particularly in the Latina and other under served communities of Sonoma County. To provide advocacy training and community education. To promote more women and minorities in our law enforcement agencies. To commit to equal justice for all women and girls.

rindar una defensa gratuita a víctimas de violación, violencia doméstica y abuso infantil, particularmente en las comunidades hispanas y otras que no son atendidas adecuadamente en el condado de Sonoma. Proveer capacitación en defensa pública y educación comunitaria. Incrementar el número de mujeres y personas pertenecientes a minorías en nuestras agencias de aplicación de justicia. Comprometernos con la justicia igualitaria para todas las mujeres y las niñas.

News Round-up ~ Resumen de noticias


TRENTON — The State Police today graduated 118 new troopers and once again proclaimed the class to be the most diverse in state history, topping the one that graduated in October.

The 153rd Class, which was awarded badges at Elizabeth High School, includes 30 Hispanic troopers, who represent 25 percent of graduates, as well as 19 black troopers, who represent 16 percent of the group, State Police said.

The class also included six Asians and one American Indian. Only five females, three of whom were white, graduated today, highlighting the force's continuing struggle to attract a more balanced group of recruits in terms of gender.

"The 153rd class represents a major step forward in our continuing effort to develop and maintain a State Police force that reflects the diverse population it serves," Gov. Chris Christie said.


Five females out of 118 new troopers???????

"...a State Police force that reflects the diverse population it serves," Gov. Chris Christie???????????

Law enforcement across the country continues to exclude women, even from the definition of diversity. Law enforcement's big diversity fail is not racial. According to USDOJ figures, 25% of the nation's police are people of color. That's close to parity with the percent in the population. Only 12% of the nation's law enforcement are female, a figure that is abysmally below women's 50% in the population.

No wonder only 3% of rapists do jail time. No wonder we can't end police brutality. Law enforcement, and police reformers too, are failing completely to target the toxic male dominated culture and apply the obvious solution: RECRUIT, HIRE, RETAIN, AND PROMOTE FEMALE OFFICERS!

The facts are known. Female officers have dramatically lower rates of officer-involved-shootings, misconduct, and  citizen complaints compared to male officers. Females officers tend to respond to volatile situations by de-escalating. Male officers tend more to respond to volatile situations as a challenge, and they escalate.

For all those claiming to be working for an end to police brutality, how is it you never call out and protest law enforcement's sexist exclusion of women?

...WJC Admin

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Alguna noche de hace años, cuando yo aún no sabía que existían los feminismos en México, vi un documental donde Lydia Cacho hacía un “statement” poderoso al enunciarse una mujer que, al luchar contra la pederastia en el estado de Quintana Roo, enfrentaba las consecuencias impuestas por la corrupción mexicana.
Hoy, después de años, recuerdo esa noche gracias a la designación para la Fiscalía General del estado de Quintana Roo. En octubre de 2004, un juez giró la orden de aprehensión contra Jean Succar Kuri, que huyó a los Estados Unidos alertado por una red de políticos, misóginos por obligatoriedad de clase y género en este país.
Miguel Ángel Pech Cen, propuesto por la fracción parlamentaria del Partido Acción Nacional (PAN) para ocupar el cargo de fiscal en Quintana Roo, es uno de los políticos que conformaron esta red de corrupción en la que se asentó uno de los antecedentes más dolorosos para las mujeres mexicanas, en términos de corrupción ante la pederastia, la esclavitud sexual y la persecución criminal y hostigamiento de periodistas.
Con 24 votos a favor: Partido Acción Nacional (PAN), Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Partido Verde Ecologista de México (PVEM), Partido Encuentro Social (PES), Partido Nueva Alianza (Panal), Movimiento de Regeneración Nacional (Morena) y un diputado independiente nos han recordado que los derechos de las mujeres son una cosa secundaria en los temas políticos, que no nos alcanza la preparación, la perspectiva de derechos humanos cuando somos mujeres, que pase lo que pase en este país, seguiremos siendo relegadas de los puestos de toma de decisión cuando competimos contra un hombre corrupto. El compadrazgo que siempre será más que suficiente para ocupar los cargos en México.
Se designó a Miguel Ángel Pech Cen como fiscal general de Quintana Roo, omitiendo sus graves antecedentes, y desde luego, ignorando la demanda ciudadana de transparencia en la elección.



México, sin jurisdicción en pederastia y turismo sexual infantil

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“Law enforcement treats these crimes like second-class crimes,” Scott said. “Cops believe it is a social worker’s job. They are looking for a reason to clear the case, and as a police officer, you have got to treat child abuse like any other crime.”

It was the worst case of child abuse that local officials had ever seen. The death of 8-year-old Gabriel Fernandez became a grim symbol of the failure of Los Angeles County’s child welfare system. But it also has roiled the L.A. County Sheriff’s Department, where several deputies have been disciplined. Records show deputies visited Gabriel’s home multiple times during the eight months prosecutors say he was being tortured and beaten. But the deputies found no signs of abuse and did not file paperwork that would have led specially trained detectives to do more investigating. 



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During the last decade, women in Africa have made progress in achieving greater gender equality, financial security and access to health care. Women have assumed positions of leadership and governance in international forums, national offices and at community levels. Young African women and men have grown more vocal in their support for women’s equality.

But throughout the region, women and girls are still denied the ability to control their reproductive lives. In many places, reproductive health care, including safe abortion care, is inaccessible—particularly for young, rural, poor, displaced and uneducated women—for a variety of reasons including legal restrictions, cost and cultural stigma. This stigma extends to health care providers who may not provide abortion care as a result.

In Africa, more than eight million women have abortions each year, many of them unsafe. Each year, about 1.6 million women are treated for complications from unsafe abortion, and thousands more suffer complications but do not receive the treatment they need. Because so many abortions in the region are unsafe, roughly 16,000 maternal deaths annually are due to unsafe abortion. The consequences of unsafe abortion for women and their families, and for society as a whole, are significant and enduring.

Approximately 90% of African women of childbearing age live in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Even where the law allows abortion under certain circumstances, few women, including survivors of sexual violence, are able to navigate the processes required to access a safe and legal procedure.

There has been progress in the last decade, and progress continues to be made. Some African nations are working to reform their abortion laws. The body of credible research has grown, and we know more about the magnitude and consequences of unsafe abortion. We know more about women’s and adolescents’ pathways to abortion, and attitudes and stigma around abortion. And we know more about the costs of unsafe abortion to women and their families and to health care systems, and the cost savings associated with safe and comprehensive abortion and contraceptive care.

We—more than 260 researchers, advocates, policymakers and donors—commit ourselves and call on others to build, share and act on the evidence. Furthermore, remaining gaps in evidence must be filled. Our agenda for research and action in Africa going forward will focus on:


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SANE Program Development and Operation Guide

NCJ Number:  250217

  Publication Date:  2016
  Abstract   HTML
  Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement: A Review of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Various Models
  Author:  Joseph De Angelis ; Richard Rosenthal ; Brian Buchner
  Publication Date:  09/2016
  Abstract   PDF



Audit of the Office of Justice Programs Human Trafficking and Office on Violence Against Women Legal Assistance Awards to the Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, San Francisco, California
  Publication Date:  08/2016
  Abstract   PDF
Fact Sheet on Justice Involved Women in 2016
  Publication Date:  06/2016
  Abstract   PDF 

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WEBSITE: https://www.womensmarch.com/
FACEBOOK PAGE: https://www.facebook.com/Womens-March-on-Washington-1338822066131069/
TWITTER: https://twitter.com/womensmarch
INSTAGRAM: http://www.instagram.com/womensmarch

RSVP on our OFFICIAL EVENTBRITE: bit.ly/womensmarchrsvp (not required, but greatly helpful for planning!)

This is an INCLUSIVE march, is FREE to join and EVERYONE who supports women's rights are welcome.

PLEASE SHARE, we need to spread the word everywhere!

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Si eres mujer en El Salvador, estás en riesgo de ir a la cárcel por pérdida de tu embarazo - sin importar la causa. Dile al Congreso de El Salvador que levante la cruel prohibición del aborto: http://www.reproductiverights.org/ElSalvador-ES 

English version: https://youtu.be/syInu3hnE7I 

If you’re a woman in El Salvador, you risk jail time for ending a pregnancy—or having a miscarriage. Sign the petition to tell El Salvador’s Congress: Pass legislation lifting the total abortion ban today. http://www.reproductiverights.org/ElS... 

Version en español: https://youtu.be/EV-x9v2iY54


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As the era of Trump approaches, some of you are succumbing to the following four syndromes:

1. Normalizer Syndrome. You want to believe Trump will be just another president – more conservative and pompous than most, but one who will make rational decisions once in office.

You are under a grave delusion. Trump has a serious personality disorder and will pose a clear and present danger to America and the world.

2. Outrage Numbness Syndrome. You are no longer outraged by what Trump says or what he does – his incessant lies, his cabinet picks, his bullying, his hatefulness  – because you’ve gone numb. You can’t conceive that someone like this is becoming President of the United States, so you’ve shut down emotionally. Maybe you’ve even stopped reading the news.

You need to get back in touch with your emotions and reengage with what’s happening.  

3. Cynical Syndrome.


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António Guterres appoints Nigeria’s Amina Mohammed as his Deputy after saying gender parity at UN was a priority.


The incoming UN secretary general, António Guterres, has announced that Nigeria’s environment minister, Amina Mohammed, will be his deputy and appointed two other women to key leadership posts.

Guterres has made achieving gender parity at the world body a priority of his tenure, which begins on 1 January. Women currently fill less than one in four leadership positions at the UN.

Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, a senior Brazilian foreign ministry official, will serve as Guterres’s chief of staff, and Kyung-wha Kang of South Korea has been appointed to the new position of special adviser on policy.

Mohammed had been widely tipped to become UN deputy secretary general after she led successful negotiations on the sustainable development goals – 17 targets agreed by the United Nations to end extreme poverty by 2030. She succeeds Jan Eliasson of Sweden.

Viotti, currently Brazil’s undersecretary for Asia and the Pacific, has previously served as ambassador to Germany and as UN envoy. She helped shape Brazil’s role within the Brics club of emerging economies and has worked as director for human rights in the foreign ministry.


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Donald Trump didn't earn too many endorsements from unions during his presidential campaign, but one enthusiastically supported him. The national Fraternal Order of Police (FOP), which boasts more than 330,000 members and is the country's largest police union, announced in September that it would be backing Trump because he "understands and supports" its priorities. (The organization declined to make a formal endorsement in the 2012 presidential election but in 2008 backed John McCain.) Trump's rhetoric on safety and law and order seemed to align with the right-leaning union. "Our members believe he will make America safe again," the group explained when it announced its support. About a week after Election Day, it offered the president-elect a list of its priorities for the first 100 days of his administration.

The policy ideas, released through the union's official website with little fanfare, includes more than a dozen proposals. Many involve aggressively dismantling the modest reforms suggested by the Obama administration in a 2015 plan called President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing, such as increasing the use of body cameras nationwide and implementing a national database on police use of force. The FOP also wants Trump to bring back racial profiling in federal agencies by lifting or changing the 2003 ban put in place by the Bush administration. The union suggests he should cut off some or all federal aid to "sanctuary cities" and bring an end to Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), using its database to deport the individuals who had been protected by being included in it.



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La época de Navidad se convierte, un año más, en un avasallamiento constante a nuestras retinas: anuncios de regalos por donde quiera que miremos. Las nuevas generaciones son especialmente vulnerables ante esta publicidad; de los juegos que aprendan en la infancia dependerá gran parte de su futuro.
Las niñas son educadas en la belleza, la maternidad o el cuidado doméstico. Los niños reciben mensajes de poder, competitividad, independencia y dinamismo. Algunas campañas se distancian de este tipo de anuncios rodeados de machismo mediante mensajes de igualdad a través de la coeducación.
Las campañas de juguetes de Navidad vuelven a estar, otro año más, impregnadas de valores patriarcales. Aún vemos anuncios de bebés que son cuidados por niñas: les dan el biberón, les cambian el pañal y les cantan para dormir. Todo, con una sonrisa. Poco después, podemos ver a un niño jugar con una pistola a matar monstruos o cualquier otro enemigo que se le parezca. Pasan los años, los papeles no se invierten.
Mientras, los juguetes siguen siendo un arma de educación en valores básica: “El juego, a través de los juguetes en la infancia, es una cuestión primordial y fundamental para el desarrollo de nuestros niños y nuestras niñas”.
Así lo explica la integrante del grupo de investigación de Equidad e Inclusión en Educación de la Universidad de Murcia, Eva María González Barea, a AmecoPress: “los juguetes suponen un recurso y un medio de gran alcance en la educación de la población infantil para la adquisición de valores de igualdad, justicia o ética”.


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Children have become the unwilling emblems of armed conflict and extreme violence.

Searing images have surfaced in news stories, aid workers’ alerts, and rights groups’ dispatches: a 5 year old pulled from Aleppo rubbleorphans at a Goma children’s center, a young Colombian woman struggling to readjust after years as a child soldier, and, face down on a Turkish beach, a drowned 3-year-old refugee. Images of this nature were shown yesterday at the International Criminal Court, during the opening statement in Ongwen, with Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda herself warning “that some of these images are extremely disturbing.”

There is no better time than now to press for strategies both to combat such harms and to bring the persons responsible to justice. Presenting an important step toward those goals is the Policy on Children of the International Criminal Court Office of the Prosecutor.


Prosecutor Bensouda launched the Policy on Children at an event during last month’s meeting of the ICC Assembly of States Parties. Bensouda quoted from the U.N. expert Graça Machel’s pathbreaking 1996 report on children and armed conflict, then commented:

“[I]t is indeed unconscionable that we so clearly and consistently see children’s rights attacked and that we fail to defend them.
“It is unforgivable that children are assaulted, violated, murdered and yet our conscience is not revolted nor our sense of dignity challenged. This represents a fundamental crisis of our civilisation and a failure of our humanity.
“By adopting the Policy on Children, which we launch today, we at the Office of the Prosecutor seek to ensure that children suffering the gravest injustices are not ignored. That through the vector of the law, we do what we can to protect and advance the rights of children within the framework of the Rome Statute.”


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La muerte de Viviana Pisano quedó sin resolver. Su madre, María Cristina Pisano, miembro del colectivo Ni Una Menos, vino a contarnos su historia y a hablarnos de su lucha en contra de los femicidios, la violencia machista y la violencia psicológica.

Si sos víctima o conocés a alguien que sufre violencia de género, en Argentina llamá al 144 las 24 horas de los 365 días del año.

También realizá la denuncia a través de Twitter en #NiUnaMenos. Podés hacer las denuncias por medio de Twitter desde cualquier parte del planeta, ya que la violencia machista es un flagelo que afecta a todo el mundo.


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At least 50 women disappeared in the Veracruz capital of Xalapa over three nights in 2011 – just some of the thousands of victims in the 10-year battle against drug trafficking


***  “A man in normal clothes came saying he was from the human rights department, and was going to photograph my injuries in the bathroom. He raped me,” said Rosales, in a prison interview in Mexico City.

During the attack a uniformed marine entered the room. “He offered to help; he raped me too.”

*** Official records indicate almost 7,000 women and girls have disappeared since 2007. But activists say the reality is much worse. The government register of the missing includes 164 women from Veracruz, yet a local monitoring group has documented almost 500 cases of girls and women who have vanished in the past three years alone.

Rupert Knox, Amnesty International’s lead investigator in Mexico until 2015, said: “In this climate of corruption and impunity – where security policies are determined by links between criminal networks, party politics and business interests – opportunities for targeting women and girls are closely connected with the knowledge that no one will do anything serious to protect them.”

Between 2007 and 2015, almost 20,000 women were murdered – a 49% increase on the previous decade, according to the National Statistics Institute (INEGI).



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This study examined the impact of increased oil development in the Bakken region of Montana and North Dakota on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking (DVDVSAS).

Statistical analysis shows that DVDVSAS increased in the Bakken region after the oil boom started in 2008; however, findings differ depending on the types of data analyzed and the specific communities examined. Although nearly all of t he regional analyses showed increases in DVDVSAS, some of those changes were not statistically significant. “Hot spots” were also revealed from data sources.

A key conclusion of the study is that the oil patch is a diverse setting that impacts specific communities in diverse ways. Victim and family service agencies reported experiencing increased demand for services without adequate resources to address client needs. The study focused on data for the years 2002-2014. A mixed methods approach that combined the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data was used. Researchers collected and analyzed data on related crimes and on State and local agencies that provide services to victims of interpersonal violence, using audio-recorded interviews and focus groups. A wide variety of individuals living in the region also participated in interviews and focus groups. Relevant public policies were examined as well. 4 figures and 1 table



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In some Arab countries women still have to ask permission from a male relative to get a passport, marry or leave the country. Although the practice of "male guardianship" is not always enshrined in law, it persists in everyday life within many families. 

As part of the 100 Women season, the BBC asked three female cartoonists from North Africa to take up their pens and illustrate how the custom continues to affect women's lives in their countries.


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Johnna Artis, 20, first apprentice and Maria Fraguas Jover, 24, rehearsal director at the Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory pictured at the United Nations. Credit: IPS UN Bureau / IPS.

UNITED NATIONS, Nov 23 2016 (IPS) - Young women are beginning to find their voices around issues such as sexism and violence, including through hip-hop, an art-form which has a long tradition of fighting oppression.

Johnna Artis, 20, a first apprentice of H+ the Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory told IPS about how she has learnt to express herself and gained confidence through dance:

“Hip-hop has allowed me to realise that I can speak, and that my voice can be heard, and if my voice can’t be heard, my movements can be heard, so I have multiple ways to talk to people,” said Artis.

Growing up Artis says she felt that she often silenced her own voice, but she has become more confident to speak out, particularly she says, since she has learned that sharing her own experiences can help others.

“I’m talking more and I’m interacting more, so it’s a process, but I’m getting out of the silence,” she said.

Artis, originally from Brooklyn, New York, is one of 25 hip-hop dancers at the conservatory, who rehearse for four to six hours, six days a week.

“(Hip-hop) has been a voice for the oppressed always,” -- Maria Fraguas Jover

Artis’ teacher Maria Fraguas Jover, 24, Rehearsal Director at the Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory told IPS that while female dancers like Artis are learning to express themselves through hip-hop this is not how it has always been.

“Hip-hop was created by men, dominated by men, just the way the world has been. It’s a patriarchal society, so really hip-hop is just a microcosm of that.”


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This Symposium was held 

12 November 2016, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.
Simcoe Hall, Room 1033
Lakehead University Orillia
500 University Avenue, Orillia, Ontario, Canada L3V 0B9

The objectives of the symposium were: (1) to disseminate the latest research on sex trafficking of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada; (2) to offer the physical and intellectual space for critical analysis and contextualization of the problem; (3) to provide an overview of what is being done to address the problem; (4) to facilitate face-to-face networking and interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral knowledge exchange among the delegates, particularly students, faculty, and service providers; (5) to promote collaboration between academics and practitioners for the purposes of continual strengthening of the knowledge base and evidence-based practice with trafficked persons.

Publications & Resources Resulting from Research Projects Presented at the Symposium

Bourgeois, R. (2015). Colonial exploitation: The Canadian State and the trafficking of Indigenous women and girls in Canada. UCLA Law Review62, 1426-1463.

Canadian Women's Foundation (CWF). (2014). "No more": Ending sex-trafficking in Canada: Report of the National Task Force on Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada. [Ottawa:] CWF.

Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC). (2010) Sisters in spirit: 2010 research findings. What their stories tell us. [Ottawa:] NWAC.

Native Women's Association of Canada (NWAC). (2014). Boyfriend or not: Sexual exploitation and trafficking of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada: Report to the Embassy of the United States. [Ottawa:] NWAC.

Native Women's Association of Canada (NWAC). (2014). Sexual exploitation and trafficking of Aboriginal women and girls: Literature review and key informant interviews. [Ottawa]: NWAC.

Roos, H. (2013). Phase I: Service and capacity review for victims of sexual exploitation and human trafficking in Nunavut: Report.[Gatineau, QC:] Roos-Remillard Consulting Services.

Tracia’s Trust: Manitoba's Sexual Exploitation Strategy

B.C.'s Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP). (2013). BC's Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, 2013-2016.Vancouver, BC: Ministry of Justice.

B.C.'s Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP). (2014). One-year status report: March 2013 to April 2014. Vancouver, BC: Ministry of Justice.

B.C.'s Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP). (2015). Second year status report: April 2014 to April 2015. Vancouver, BC: Ministry of Justice.

Recommended Online Training & Other Resources

MCIS Language Services: Free Online Training Initiative to Address Human Trafficking

  1. Full version (for service providers)
  2. Short, specialized modules for legal professionals, law enforcement officers, healthcare workers, and professionals working with children http://www.helpingtraffickedpersons.org/

B.C. Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP): Free online training “Human Trafficking: Canada is not Immune” http://www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/octiptraining/index.html

Fraser Health Authority: Free online training “Help Don’t Hinder” (how to identify and respond to potential victims of human trafficking who present in a hospital Emergency Department)

The Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR): National Human Trafficking Assessment Tool to help guide first-contact service providers across Canada in identifying and responding to situations of human trafficking

Canadian Council for Refugees: Starter Toolkit for Awareness-Raising on Trafficking in Persons

A Handbook for Helping Sexually Exploited Aboriginal Women and Girls (by the Native Women’s Association of Canada) http://www.nwac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Our-Spirits-are-NOT-for-sale-English-web-version.pdf

SEE ALSO: Native Women's Association of Canada

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“Hoy, el cuerpo de las mujeres es sustituto del salario y el empleo que han perdido. Hay hombres que venden a su pareja para el trabajo sexual”

El análisis feminista de la etapa de la transición del feudalismo al capitalismo y del trabajo reproductivo no asalariado como sostén del sistema capitalista han convertido a Silvia Federici, escritora, activista y profesora de la Universidad de Hofstra de Nueva York, en un referente para comprender la interconexión entre la crisis sistémica del capital y el incremento de las diferentes formas de violencias hacia las mujeres.


Su paso por Ecuador para participar en diferentes encuentros con la academia y movimientos feministas, permitió una conversación en la que de manera crítica analiza la actualización directa e indirecta de la caza de brujas y las consecuencias de las políticas extractivistas sobre las vidas y los cuerpos de las mujeres en América Latina.

La crisis del sistema ha tenido un grave impacto para las mujeres en diversos aspectos, pero también de manera diferenciada según territorios. ¿Cuáles son las consecuencias que se pueden identificar a nivel global tanto en el ámbito del trabajo como en el reproductivo?


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Sexual exploitation that the UN says amounts to slavery is forcing girls and their families from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras to seek refuge in Mexico

Sara Rincón was walking home from college in the capital of El Salvador when she was confronted by three heavily tattooed gang members who had been harassing her for weeks.

The group’s leader – a man in his 30s, with the figure 18 etched on to his shaven head – threw her against a wall, and with his hands around her neck gave her one last warning.

“He said no woman had ever turned him down, and if I refused to be his girlfriend, he would kill me and my family. I didn’t want to leave home but after that we couldn’t stay; we left for Mexico in the middle of the night,” said Rincón, forcing a smile through her tears.

Increasing numbers of women and girls are fleeing El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras amid mounting evidence that criminal gangs are systematically targeting adolescent girls as sexual slaves. 


Of the 32,142 female migrants detained by Mexican immigration agents in the first nine months of this year, almost one in three were under 18. Almost 15,000 12- to 17-year-old girls from Central America’s northern triangle – Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras – have been apprehended here since 2014.

......Forcing women and girls into sexual activities with gang members is prima facie evidence of modern slavery, according to Urmila Bhoola, the UN’s special rapporteur for contemporary slavery.

“The forced recruitment of girls and young women into gang-related activities, and especially being forced into prostitution through providing ‘conjugal visits’ to gang members in prison, are extreme forms of sexual exploitation and human degradation that involve exercising powers akin to the right of ownership over these individuals,” Bhoola said.

“Gangs reflect the deeply patriarchal power structures that prevail in this region,” she said. “It’s a problem affecting millions of women and girls.”



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